2.1 Nouns, Pronouns, and Agreement

This book covers the lesson relating to nouns, pronouns, and agreement.

Review Nouns

A noun names a person (worker), place (city), thing (bus), idea (goodness), or action (driving).

Some nouns are singular because they name one thing, such as apartment. Other nouns are plural because they refer to more than one thing. To form most plural nouns, follow these four rules:


For some nouns that end in o, add -es.
hero + es = heroes
potato + es = potatoes
tomato + es = tomatoes
  1. To make most nouns plural, add -s.
bedroom + s = bedrooms photo + s = photos
  1. To make nouns that end in ch, sh, s, x, or z plural, add -es.
bench + es = benches dish + es = dishes bus + es = buses
box + es = boxes waltz + es = waltzes
  1. To make nouns that end in a consonant and y plural, change the y to i and add -es.
drapery—draperies vacancy—vacancies


  1. To make nouns that end in f or fe plural, change the f or fe to v and add -es.
half—halves wife—wives

Some nouns are irregular. They don’t follow any rules. Here are some nouns with irregular plural forms:

child—children man—men woman—women
medium—media mouse—mice tooth—teeth
series—series radius—radii